Guide Rahmenbedingungen für die Bildungspolitik in Österreich (German Edition)

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Heckmann differentiated immigrant minorities from traditional national minorities. Castles, working in Germany in the s, follows the British tradition of regarding groups of migrants with a common background as rather stable ethnic minorities in a multicultural society.

The ethnic minority approach has contributed to opening up of the scientific discourse in Germany to international debates and their concepts as well as their theories. In political terms, the approach has greatly influenced the process of recognising Germany as a country of immigration. The subsequent recognition of the working group as an independent section within the DGS was a major step towards establishing a defined field of migration and integration research.

However, minority approaches in German migration and integration research did not gain the same prominence as they did in the Netherlands for a time or in Great Britain Bommes : At the same time a process of empirical differentiation and institutional anchoring of migration research began. Klaus J. In the period from the late s until the mid s, several research centres linked to universities were founded. In the meantime, migration research has been established in more and more institutions and a continuing disciplinary differentiation is going on which makes it increasingly difficult to keep track of the development of the field.

The institutionalisation process of integration research in the s was accompanied by substantial funding activities for research projects. In this section we look at processes and structures of science-society dialogues that contributed to changing and shaping integration policy in Germany.

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Since the end of World War II and with the construction of a new Germany several institutions have been created for a kind of societal re-education programme. They are part of an adult education system in which people learn in a pleasant environment and usually stay together for several days.

The academies teach history, take up intellectual currents in society, political debates and controversies and basic ethical and normative issues. Much of the effort to convince society of the reality of Germany being an immigration country has happened in the Akademien and through their work. Social scientists have continuously been invited for presentations and discussions in the academies and have found an interested audience of opinion leaders for their topics. Participants of the workshops meet politicians and other important social actors in face-to-face situations and can establish relations with them to influence their work.

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With controversial topics, like migration and integration, journalists have quite often taken part in the conferences and have reported in their respective media. Thus, on the one hand, politicians have been influenced by the Akademie workshops, on the other hand journalists of quality media have transferred messages from these workshops to an interested public.

We found three major forms of enlightenment models; manifestos, model projects and self-appointed consultancy. A manifesto is an appeal to get attention for an urgent social problem.

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The content of a manifesto is a concise distillation of research findings, including conclusions and recommendations concerning political action to be taken. The manifesto proposed an improvement of important preconditions for integration, namely a reform of the existing citizenship law. Moreover, the researchers promoted a new concept of immigration taking into account the demographic evolution of Germany.


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The widely circulated manifesto fed into discourses in the political system, society, science and the media. Model projects are projects usually funded by foundations or other civil society organisations that focus on an under-researched and under-funded social problem.

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Model projects — like manifestos — address a broader public and political class with an appeal or recommendation for action. Self appointed consultancy aims at reaching and enlightening a broader public, but also addresses politicians through offers of advice. It can be regarded as a hybrid between enlightenment models and consultancy models. In the project interviews, experts also emphasised private foundations as important actors in science-society dialogues, such as the Bertelsmann-Foundation, the Mercator-Foundation, the Freudenberg-Foundation, the Volkswagen Foundation and the Schader-Foundation.

Starting from hypotheses about the relevance of early child education, a programme for early childhood development for migrant children was developed and evaluated. The programme is supposed to influence the political system to invest more in early childhood education, particularly for migrant children. Thus, foundations helped to enlighten the public and to promote science-society dialogues.

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To critically follow political and public debates means using the media and the public in order to raise political interest in findings and expertise from migration research interview with Bade. In Germany there is a differentiation between free scientific research — in universities and publicly funded institutes like the Max Planck Gesellschaft — and so called Ressortforschung.

The latter is scientific research, but the research questions and the uses and misuses of research results are controlled by the administration that has commissioned the research. This does not necessarily mean the research results remain secret and are used only for internal purposes. The administration that has commissioned the research may have an interest in influencing a wider public and NGOs via the publication of the research reports.

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Regarding Ressortforschung about migration and integration in Germany, the work of the well funded research department of the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees BAMF is a very good example of efforts to inform politicians, other parts of state- and local- administrations, and a broader public of NGOs. An impressive array of such publications is available on the internet.

There is other research, of course, that has been produced for internal governmental and administrative purposes, and that has not and will not be published. The forms of consultancy identified in this category differ from self-appointed consultancy by providing advice that was requested by government or civil society organisations. Individual consultancy is a form in which individual scientific experts advise a public or private institution or organisation.

There are numerous such activities in all spheres of migration and integration. As a single illustration one might mention the influence that the jurist Kay Hailbronner has played advising the German Ministry of the Interior during different governments in matters of immigration policy and naturalisation. Collective consultancy models: These are dialogue structures in which a body of scientific experts either alone or with experts from other fields provides advice to a public or private organisation or administration government, agency, city, political parties, unions, NGOs, foundations, corporations.

The aim is to improve the policy and prestige of the respective organisation. An example of such a collective consultancy body in Germany is the BAMF scientific expert body that advises the research department of the agency. This committee partly consists of scientific experts, but mostly of representatives of other governmental departments and NGOs active in migration and integration policies.

Project consultancy is a form of consultancy in which a scientific institute is cooperating with a public or private body developing a policy or set of measures to improve a particular situation or initiate something new. Formative evaluation, in which the evaluator has an intervening role in the project, is a case in point. The institute is using its scientific expertise and methods to develop a certain policy or measure.

This is a form in which public or private bodies cooperate among themselves and with scientific institutes for the purpose of mutual learning and knowledge sharing about successful policies. The public bodies, cities for instance, share their experience regarding the application of certain policies, while the institutes contribute scientific evidence on the issues.

follow link The CLIP project is an example of a mutual learning process. It consists of a network of European cities and European research institutes and has recently completed work on four major areas of migrant integration issues: housing, diversity, inter-group relations, and ethnic entrepreneurship www.

Turning now to knowledge utilisation, knowledge may be used by policymakers in three different ways, as Boswell see Chap. Equally, of course, knowledge may be ignored and not utilised at all. The efforts of the academies and the other forms of enlightenment dialogue structures that we elaborated above consisted in offering existing knowledge to an open-minded public and to some of the political institutions.

It is evident that independent commissions established by the government, such as […] the Independent Commission on Migration […], primarily provide input and preliminary work through their advisory activities. The bureaucratic model of science-polity relations has been established by policymakers, because the political system feels that there is a continuous need for scientific knowledge of migration and integration processes.

When the German Ministry of Interior Affairs established the research unit in the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees in this was the beginning of a large number of research projects, all commissioned by the government. At present this research unit is the largest amongst all the research units in Germany.

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It is characteristic of the bureaucratic model that the ministry controls research questions and publication of results. In recent years politics increasingly began to take note of the wide range of expert knowledge already in existence. Even if they do not use and implement all expertise that is proposed by commissions, advisory boards and researchers, they at least acknowledge it interview with university researcher in history.

Other experts argue that policymakers often draw selectively on external expertise and forms of consultancy by choosing the expertise that strengthens and subsequently fosters their own positions and concepts. I feel that political actors only use knowledge from research to subsequently ensure or strengthen already existing concepts, which have often been developed under pressure from international and EU debates. Hence, researchers have to live with the fact that their knowledge is either used to improve migrant integration policies or misused for legitimising political positions.

In the next sections we shall look at science-society dialogues in more detail in three particular areas: naturalisation of newcomers, education of migrant children and accommodation of new religious diversity.